The technique for satellite monitoring of peatlands in order to determinate their fire hazard and combustion risks
Keywords:peat deposits, multispectral satellite imagery, long-wave infrared range, spectral indices, fire hazard, fire safety
Prolonged dry periods in spring and autumn, which are becoming more frequent for the Ukrainian Polissya, contribute to fires, especially in peatlands, that are dangerous for human health and ecosystems in general. Forecasting the risk of such natural and anthropogenic emergencies requires monitoring of current situations. Satellite monitoring provides an accurate information of the disaster and allows to realistically estimate the amount of damage. The article investigates the factors to be taken into account in peatlands monitoring and considers methods of processing of multispectral satellite data (Landsat, Sentinel series) in combination with traditional statistics data and field measurements. The technological diagram for making the studies is proposed. To assess the risks, the values that can be obtained simultaneously with the help of satellite data on large areas are determined: peat soil moisture, peat surface temperature, spectral indices (water, soil), evapotranspiration; the seasons of the greatest risks of fires are defined, and also risks associated with anthropogenic impact (proximity to settlements, agricultural trials, hayfields, careless handling of fire and arson). The condition of peatlands is diagnosed according to the developed criteria and assessed by four levels of fire risk - critical, high, low and insignificant. The study of spectral indices showed that with the help of the SAVI soil index in combination with the analysis of surface temperature, the burned areas and fires are accurately mapped in real-time. To predict the occurrence of fire situations, the use of two variants of the normalized differential water index (NDWI) in combination with thermal imaging is proposed. The test sites provide examples of diagnosing fires and burned areas in peatlands, as well as examples of forecasting fire hazards situations that require close attention of local authorities. Recommendations are given to prevent emergencies related to the burning of peatlands.
Analiz stanu mineralʹno–syrovynnoyi bazy Ukrayiny, oblik rodovyshch i skladannya Derzhavnykh balansiv zapasiv torfu i sapropelyu stanom na 01.01.2003–2005rr./zvit NDR Derzhavnyy informatsiynyy heolohichnyy fond Ukrayiny . Kyiv: 2005, p.47 (In Ukrainian)
Gao, B. (1996). NDWI – a normalized difference water index for remote sensing of vegetation liquid water from space. Remote Sensing of Environment, 58(3), 257–266. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0034-4257(96)00067-3
Harkavyy S. F (2002). Povtorne radioaktyvne zabrudnennya terytoriyi vnaslidok pozhezh na torfovyshchakh, zabrudnenykh radionuklidamy Scientific and technical collection Problems of Chornobyl, Issue 10, part II Chernobyl, 2002 P. 72-76. (In Ukrainian) https://inis.iaea.org/collection/NCLCollectionStore/_Public/34/060/34060861.pdf
Kong, S-R, Yamamoto, M, Shaari, H, Hayashi, R, Seki, Tahir, Fadzil M- F, Sulaiman, A. (2021).The significance of pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Borneo peat core for the reconstruction of fire history. PLoS ONE 16 (9): e0256853. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0256853
Lishchenko, L, Pazynych, N. (2016). Monitoring of peat bogs areas to identify fire hazards by remote sensing. Ukrainian Journal of Remote Sensing, №8, p. 29-39. https://ujrs.org.ua/ujrs/article/view/72 (In Ukrainian)
Lischenko, L., Pazynych, N., Krylova, A. (2019). Remote sensing of peatbogs regarding their fire hazard . Collection materials V International Conference Aktual'nyye voprosy nauki o zemle v kontseptsii ustoychivogo razvitiya Belarusi i sopredel'nykh gosudarstv (Gomel'(1), 28–29.11. 2019. P. 260-264. URL: http://conference.gsu.by
McFeeters S. K. (1996). The use of the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) in the delineation of open water features. International Journal of Remote Sensing, №17:7, p. 1425-1432. https://doi.org/10.1080/01431169608948714
Pazynych, N., Lishchenko, L., Krylova, A., Filipovych V., Lubsky M. (2016). Doslidzhennya ta monitorynh pozhezhonebezpechnykh torfovyshch na osnovi materialiv dystantsiynoho zonduvannya zemli. Naukovyy visnyk: Tsyvilʹnyy zakhyst ta pozhezhna bezpeka. 2016. - № 1. p.. 88-94: http://nbuv.gov.ua/UJRN/sbcpfs_2016_1_15 (In Ukrainian)
Smith, T. E. L., Evers, S., Yule, C. M., & Gan, J. Y. (2018). In situ tropical peatland fire emission factors and their variability, as determined by field measurements in Peninsula Malaysia. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 32, p. 18–31. https://doi.org/10.1002/2017GB005709
Stankevich, S., Filipovich, V., Lubsky, M., Krylova, A.,. Kritsuk, S., Brovkina, O., Gornyy, V., Tronin, A. (2015). Intercalibration of methods for the land surface thermodynamic temperature retrieving inside urban area by thermal infrared satellite imaging. Ukrainian Journal of Remote Sensing, № 7, p. 12–21. https://ujrs.org.ua/ujrs/article/view/59/77 (in Russian)
Stockwell, C. E., Yokelson,, R. J., Kreidenweis, S. M., Robinson, A. L., DeMottP.. Sullivan J., R. C, Reardon, J., Ryan K. C., Griffith, D. W. T, and Stevens L. (2014) Trace gas emissions from combustion of peat, crop residue, biofuels, grasses, and other fuels: configuration and FTIR component of the fourth Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment (FLAME-4). Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. Vol.14. P. 9727–9754. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-9727-2014
Licensing conditions: the authors retain their copyrights and grant the journal the right of first publication of a work, simultaneously licensed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution License International CC-BY, which allows you to share the work with proof of authorship of the work and initial publication in this journal.
The authors, directing the manuscript to the editorial office of the Ukrainian Journal of Remote Sensing of the Earth, agree that the editorial board transfers the rights to protection and use of the manuscript (material submitted to the journal editorial board, including such protected copyright objects as photographs of the author, drawings, charts, tables, etc.), including reproduction in print and on the Internet; for distribution; to translate the manuscript into any languages; export and import of copies of the journal with the article of the authors for the purpose of distribution, informing the public. The above rights are transferred by the authors to the editors, without limitation of their validity, and in the territory of all countries of the world without limitation, including in Ukraine.
The authors guarantee that they have exclusive rights to use the submitted material. The editors are not liable to third parties for breach of data by the authors of the guarantees. The authors retain the right to use the published material, its fragments and parts for personal, including scientific and educational purposes. The rights to the manuscript are considered to be transferred by the authors of the editorial board from the moment of the publication of the issue of the journal in which it is published. Reprinting of materials published in the journal by other individuals and legal entities is possible only with the consent of the publisher, with the obligatory indication of the issue of the journal in which the material was published.